General Science – Biology MCQs

16. Which of the following artificial sweeteners is not broken down by the body and therefore it is non-caloric (no-calorie sweetener) :

(A) Aspartame
(B) Saccharin
(C) Sucralose
(D) Cyclamate

Correct Answer: (C) Sucralose

Answer Explanation:

Sucralose is an artificial sweetener. The majority of ingested sucralose is not broken down by the body and therefore it is non-caloric. Sucralose is approximately 600 times as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), twice as sweet as saccharin, and 3 times as sweet as aspartame. It is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions. Therefore, it can be used in baking or in products that require a longer shelf life. The commercial success of sucralose-based products stems from its favorable comparison to other low-calorie sweeteners in terms of taste, stability, and safety.It is used because it is a no-calorie sweetener, and does not promote dental cavities, is safe for consumption by diabetics, and does not affect insulin levels.

17. The Science of using mechanical devices with human muscle skeleton and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease or defect is called:

(A) Gerontechnology
(B) Biomechatronics
(C) Orthotics
(D) Bionics

Correct Answer: (B) Biomechatronics

Answer Explanation:

Biomechatronics is an applied interdisciplinary science that aims to integrate mechanical elements, electronics and parts of biological organisms. Biomechatronics includes the aspects of biology, mechanics, and electronics. It also encompasses the fields of robotics and neuroscience. The goal of this science is to make devices that interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems. The end result is that the devices will help with human motor control that was lost or impaired by trauma, disease or birth defects.

18. Which among the following is not among Micronutrients required for plants?

(A) Molybdenum
(B) Magnesium
(C) Manganese
(D) Zinc

Correct Answer: (B) Magnesium

Answer Explanation:

In order for a plant to grow and thrive, it needs a number of different chemical elements. The most important are:Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen – Available from air and water and therefore in plentiful supply Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (a.k.a. potash) – The three macronutrients and the three elements you find in most packaged fertilizers Sulfur, calcium, and magnesium – Secondary nutrients Boron, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc – Micronutrients

19. How does calcium carbide ripen mangoes?

(A) It reacts with moisture and releases Ethylene
(B) It reacts with moisture and releases Acetaldehyde, which in turn releases ethylene
(C) It reacts with starch and releases Acetylene
(D) It reacts with moisture and releases Ethyne

Correct Answer: (A) It reacts with moisture and releases Ethylene

Answer Explanation:

reasons of safe transportation of fruits, mangoes, bananas etc are picked before they ripen fully. Slightly green harvested mangoes are subjected to small containers of calcium carbide (CaC2) with a plastic covering. CaC2 reacts with the moisture in the air to release acetylene (or ethyne) gas as follows:CaC2 + 2 H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2This option may give you slightest confusion if you don’t know the difference between Ethylene and Ethyne (Acetylene). Both are chemical substances produced by fruits to accelerate the normal process of fruit maturation — is a ripening hormone. Ethylene is C2H4 and has a carbon-carbon double bond. Acetylene is C2H2 and has a carbon-carbon triple bind. Acetylene contains more energy and burns hotter than ethylene. Ethylene is a gaseous compound , Acetylene is the chemical compound , which is the simplest alkyne and is also a hydrocarbon while Ethylene is the simplest alkene and classified as an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

20. Which among the following is the edible part in Rice?

(A) Fruit
(B) Cotyledons
(C) Endosperm
(D) Embryo

Correct Answer: (C) Endosperm

Answer Explanation:

Most of the essential micronutrients are almost exclusively stored in the husk, aleurone and embryo of rice, which are removed during the polishing process. Polishing of rice is required as the oil-rich aleurone layer turns the seed rancid upon storage and therefore making rice unsuitable for consumption. Consequently, the rice endosperm that comprises the edible part of rice for humans lacks or contains only small amount of key micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, protein, provitamin A, and other vitamins) that are essential for a healthy diet. Considering the facts above and severity of widespread micronutrient malnutrition, iron biofortification in rice endosperm is a promising strategy to overcome iron deficiency effectively.

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